Paddy fields are considered to be a major source of emissions of a greenhouse gas (GHG), methane, which contributes to anthropogenic climate change second only to carbon dioxide. From the perspective of realizing a decarbonized society, the following topics will be presented by experts from various fields and discussed as a whole on the future of rice cultivation as it should be. (1) Ultimate paddy management, (2) Manipulating microorganisms, (3) Viewing from afar (e.g., GHG emission estimation through remote sensing), (4) Estimating and forecasting (e.g., through modeling), (5) Systems that benefit everyone (e.g., carbon credit systems), and (6) Ultimate policy.